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# thermal stratification and eutrophication

The parameters like pH, temperature (°C), DO (mg/l), ORP (mV) were measured on the site using Orion make Star A329 model multiparameter meter, and SD (m) and total depth (meter) were also measured on site using Secchi disc and a graduated steel rod, respectively. J Meteorol Res 32:219–232. Phosphorous which is generally recognized as the key nutrient for algal growth is an essential element to determine the fertility of ponds (Shah and Pandit 2012). Based on temperature profile with depth, the pond was classified as stratified with temperature lapse more than 0.1 °C/m throughout the study. Warm monomictic: Lakes that circulate freely during the winter, having a stable thermal stratification during the summer. ABSTRACT: Increasing water demand and spread of water pollution through the development of agricultural, urban, industrial, and mineral activities have caused unfavorable conditions in many parts of the world, including Iran. Blooms do not occur under complete mixing of the water column (Bormans et al. Part of Springer Nature. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523. Simulation of thermal stratification and eutrophication of Taham dam reservoir using CE-QUAL-W2 model s: -QUALW2, Dam reservoir, Calibration. 2017). Seasonal behaviour of thermal stratification and trophic status in a sub-tropical Palustrine water body, $${\text{Chlorophyll}}\;{\text{`a'}}\left( {\text{mg/ml}} \right) = \left( {0.0127} \right) \times \left( {A663} \right)-\left( {0.00269} \right) \times \left( {A645} \right)$$, $${\text{Secchi disk:}}\quad {\text{TSI}}\left( {\text{SD}} \right) = 60 - 14.41\ln \left( {\text{SD}} \right)$$, $${\text{Chlorophyll a:}}\quad {\text{TSI}}\left( {\text{CHL}} \right) = 9.81\ln \left( {\text{Chl}} \right) + 30.6$$, $${\text{Total phosphorus:}}\quad {\text{TSI}}\left( {\text{TP}} \right) = 14.42\ln \left( {\text{TP}} \right) + 4.15$$, $${\text{CTSI}} = \left\{ {\left( {{\text{TSI}} - {\text{SD}}} \right) + \left( {{\text{TSI}} - {\text{Chl}}} \right) + \left( {{\text{TSI}} - {\text{TP}}} \right)} \right\}/3$$, $$R = {N^2}/{({\text{d}}u/{\text{d}}z)^2}$$, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-017-0079-3, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-1011-z. Int J Geol Earth Environ Sci 2(2):257–265, Yang Y, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Wang W, Ren X, Gao Y, Liu S, Lee X (2018) Diurnal and seasonal variation of thermal stratification and vertical mixing in a shallow fresh water lake. 2. The authors acknowledge the help of DTU administration for providing necessary facilities to undertake the study. [Seasonal stratification and eutrophication characteristics of a deep reservoir, Longtan Reservoir in subtropical area of China]. During stratification, algal … Results of the simulation of the present situation show the existence of thermal stratification during summer, which results in the qualitative stratification in the reservoir. present in the DTU pond. nitrogen expressed as nitrate (mg/l) and TKN (mg/l); most of the nitrogen was present as ammoniacal or organic (as TKN) in the form relatively lower concentration of nitrate (from 1.1 to 6.9 mg/l) compared to ammoniacal nitrogen further strengthens the observation that the condition in the pond were chiefly reducing during the study. The occurrence of stable stratification depends on the relative strengths of turbulent mixing and thermally induced density gradients (Richardson 1926). 1. The redox potential of water varied from − 246 mV (February 15) to 137 mV (March 15) indicating dominantly reducing conditions. Chlorophyll was calculated by using following equation given by Arnon (1949). Physical and chemical both forces are responsible for the process of stratification. According to the qualitative criteria, the Ilam reservoir's state is between mesotrophic and eutrophic. Based on the results obtained, the shallow pond in DTU receives significantly high concentration of dissolved phosphate and it undergoes thermal stratification seasonally. A brief overview of characteristics of stratified water bodies is followed by … Now the lake attains temperature uniformity from top to bottom. Singh, P., Bagrania, J. The temperature/density vertical profile established in lakes is the result of thermal energy and two mixing processes (convective cooling and turbulent mixing) overlap. The average ORP varied from − 246 (February 15) to 137 mV (March 15). The purpose of this study was to investigate thermal stratification and eutrophication in the Zayandeh Roud Dam reservoir located in the central part of Iran using the CE-QUAL-W2 two-dimensional model. Materials and methods This study was carried out from January 15 to April 15 in a shallow pond located in the campus (28°44′58.55″N, 77° 0.6′46.75″E) of Delhi Technological University, Delhi. The former can produce a mesotrophic condition while the latter needs excessive reaeration in order to decrease trophic levels and phosphorus concentration in the hypolimnion. The water body was classified as eutrophic throughout the study, and the details of water quality, thermal stratification, and the trophic status are discussed in the following sections. For the present study, the wind factor was considered as 2% of wind speed (cm/s). Extraction and determination of chlorophyll were performed according to the method prescribed by Arnon (1949). 1). Denominator of Eq. thermal stratification, eutrophication, sediment yield, and reservoir sediment distribution and volume-weight. The concentration of available and total phosphate was observed to be significantly high considering its potential (more than 1.0 mg/l) for eutrophication. Other parameters were determined within 24 h using standard methods as prescribed by APHA (1995). This process may result in oxygen depletion in the water body as a response to reduced photosynthesis and increased level of nutrients (Balakrishnan et al. Seasonal Stratification and Eutrophication Characteristics of a Deep Reservoir, Longtan Reservoir in Subtropical Area of China . Hydrobiologia 345:45–57, Pernica P, Wells M (2012) Frequency of episodic stratification in the near surface of lake Opeongo and other small lakes. [Article in Chinese] Zhang L, Li QH, Huang GJ, Ou T, Li Y, Wu D, Zhou QL, Gao TJ. Int J Eng Res Technol 4(3):53–56, Haritash AK, Yadav A, Kataria A, Singh K, Mathur K, Goswami S (2015b) Seasonal assessment of trophic state of a Palustrine water body. of Civil Engineering, Qom Univ. TKN (mg/l) was measured using Kjeldahl nitrogen estimation system. Water Qual Res J Can 47(3–4):227–237, Richardson LF (1926) Atmospheric diffusion shown on a distance-neighbour graph. Home > Books > Inland Waters - Dynamics and Ecology [Working Title] Downloaded: 142. Many physical factors are responsible of the trophic state of water body; thermal stratification is one of them where density difference in the lake is primarily due to the temperature variation (Yang et al. Based on the values of thermal stratification, it was observed that the pond was weakly stratified during winter (January and February) as compared to the summer (March and April). Such thermal stratification occurs because of the large differences in density (weight) between warm and cold waters. Although the Trophic State Index (TSI) due to phosphate was high, its CTSI values were lower than TSI-TP, indicating that eutrophication in the ecosystem is regulated by limited nitrogen and zooplanktons grazing. This study was carried out from January 15 to April 15 in a shallow pond located in the campus (28°44′58.55″N, 77° 0.6′46.75″E) of Delhi Technological University, Delhi. Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), dystrophication or hypertrophication, is the process by which a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients which induce excessive growth of algae. Mar Freshwater Res 48:647–654, Brown CD, Canfield DE, Bachmann RW, Hoyer MV (1998) Seasonal patterns of chlorophyll, nutrient concentrations and Secchi disk transparency in Florida lakes. Correspondence to A lake is classified as stratified if the temperature difference of 0.2 °C/m or higher with depth is present near the surface of the water body (Pernica and Wells 2012). Student, Dept. This may result in excessive algal growth upon overturning of the lake (when the thermal stratification breaks). Turbulent mixing throughout the lagoon prevents the thermal stratification that leads to short circuiting and raw wastewater solids in the effluent, as indicated when TSS levels are too high. The TSI values of different parameters are given in Table 2. Buoyancy frequency and Richardson number having its critical value Ncri = 0.025 s−1, Rcri = 0.25 (Pernica and Wells 2012) below which little or no mixing is observed, ranged from maximum of 2.18 during January to a minimum of 1.02 in April (Table 1). Appl Water Sci 9, 139 (2019). Although the wind velocity may be higher during summer, stronger thermal stratification can be formed due to temperature difference between upper layer and lower layer resulting in lower mixing of surface epilimnion, which may be a cause of concern if dissolved phosphate levels are high. - 70.39.235.208. Results of the scenarios of reduction of the nutrients show that in the scenario of 50% reduction of the phosphorus and nitrogen loads into the … There were some spatial and temporal differences for trophic state index in the reservoir. (6) is the vertical velocity shear. The total trophic state index value was calculated as 55.5- 58.07, with minimum value belonging to P/N and maximum value belonging to suspended solids for individual parameters. This may also be attributed to zooplankton grazing and/or limitation of nitrogen. When the strong thermal stratification is formed in the summer months, it could prevent or slow the exchange of water in the epilimnion and hypolimnion, which could induce water quality deterioration in the bottom because of anoxia in the hypolimnion. 1. The value of buoyancy frequency (N) and Richardson number (R) indicated complete and strong mixing in surface epilimnion due to the temperature, wind velocity, and current speed during the study with relatively stronger stratification and lower surface mixing during early summer (March–April). Changes in temperature result in changes in the density of water. The trophic state indices for phosphate (TSI-TP), chlorophyll (TSI-Chl), and Secchi depth (TSI-SD) are used to arrive at an aggregated average referred to as Carlson’s Trophic State Index (CTSI). 2008). Anoxic hypolimnion was observed during the study. The thermal stratification of lakes refers to a change in the temperature in the lake at different depths. Increase in the orthophosphate concentration during highly reducing conditions has also been observed by Olila and Reddy (1997). Moreover, chemical stratification in terms of DO concentration was also observed with significant low concentration of DO at bottom within the average depth of 1.8 m, indicating the strong stratification may have severe impact on bottom-dwelling aerobic organisms. The observed values of temperature and dissolved oxygen with respect to depth revealed that the pond remained stratified (weak to strong) during the study (Fig. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. & Haritash, A.K. Applied Water Science Lakes and ponds in temperate climates develop a thermal stratification due to lack of mixing of water as they are stagnant water bodies. We analysed 41 years of data (1968–2008) from Blelham Tarn, U.K., to determine the consequences of eutrophication and climate warming on hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen (DO). Eutrophication. Thermal stratification is affected by factors, such as solar radiation, turbidity, discharge, and wind speed; and to lower extent to humidity and air temperature. Wind-driven mixing in epilimnion of deep lakes has been studied by Pernica and Wells (2012), and a positive correlation of wind-induced mixing with thermal stratification using gradient Richardson number is mentioned. The relative magnitudes of these two processes have been calculated by the non-dimensional ratio known as the Richardson number, R, expressed as: where buoyancy frequency N is define as N = ((g/ϱ) (dϱ/dz))1/2, g =acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2), ϱ = density of fluid (water, kg/m3), u =velocity (m/s) and z=depth (m) (Pernica and Wells 2012). Email: Assistant Professor, Dept. where A663 and A645 are the absorbance of extract at 663 nm and 645 nm wavelength using spectrophotometer (LabIndia make UV3092 model). eutrophication model was based on seasonal temperature changes because stratification of the lake divided it into the epilimnion and hypolimnion, each of which was considered to be completely mixed. Email: Assistant Professor, Dept. However, the thermal stratification is disappeared and mixing condition However, the thermal stratification is disappeared and mixing condition happens in the reservoir by approaching the winter. If there are two distinct layers in the same reservoir then thermal stratification of the reservoir occurs. The dissolved oxygen profile with depth confirmed that reducing conditions prevailed in the hypolimnion. thermal stratification and eutrophication: Oxygen depletion, Algal blooms • Groundwater. Amictic: Sealed permanently by ice. Significant difference between surface and bottom temperature confirmed the thermal stratification. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-1011-z, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-1011-z, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Therefore, it becomes important to adopt effective interventions which result in reduction in import of phosphate and enhance its export, e.g. The present study was undertaken in a shallow pond ecosystem to study thermal stratification and trophic status over a period of 4 months (January–April, 2015) to understand the seasonal variations associated with. A popular method for examining trophic state of a water body uses the Trophic State Index (TSI) developed by Carlson (1977) to determine Carlson Trophic State Index (CTSI). The concentration of dissolved phosphate remains lower under oxidising conditions since binding of PO43− takes place with Fe3+ and Al3+ ions which forms an insoluble metal–phosphate complex under oxidising conditions, whereas under reducing conditions Fe3+ ions are reduced to Fe2+ which breaks the metal–phosphate complex resulting in remobilisation of phosphate in water (Haritash et al. If temperature of surface water falls below the temperature of the underlying layer, the entire water body can overturn (Boehrer et al. J Lake Reserv Manag 14(1):60–76, Carlson RE (1977) A trophic state index for lakes. The water quality on the basis of physico-chemical characterisation of collected water samples revealed that the water lies in slightly alkaline range with average pH ranging from 7.6 to 8.7 (Table 1) with dominantly reducing conditions based on values of oxidation–reduction potential (ORP). The samples were collected in pre-rinsed PET bottles and were immediately transported to laboratory (within 10 min) for its characterisation. At the time of thermal stratification, temperature changes The prevalence of reducing conditions in bottom layer resulted in solubilisation/mobilisation of phosphate in bottom layer. of Technology, Qom 37195-1519, Iran (corresponding author). of Civil Engineering, Qom Univ. Baltica 23:13–24, Devi Prasad AG, Siddaraju P (2012) Carlson’s Trophic State Index for the assessment of trophic status of two lakes in Mandya district. Based on the physico-chemical characteristics, the water body was observed to be rich in phosphate and deficient of nitrogen. 2017). Google Scholar, Balakrishnan S, Chelladurai G, Mohanraj J, Poongodi J (2017) Seasonal variations in physico-chemical characteristics of Tuticorin coastal waters, southeast coast of India. Trophic state is defined as the total weight of the biomass in a water body at a specific location and time (Devi Prasad and Siddaraju 2012). Lakes are generally classified as oligotrophic, mesotrophic, eutrophic, and hypertrophic based on the trophic status. A. K. Haritash. APHA (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. Model calibration and validation were done from October 2013 to January 2015, and the results showed an appropriate convergence between the simulated and observed data. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. AWWA, WPCE, Washington, Arnon DI (1949) Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts, polyphenoxidase in beta vulgaris. Abstract. LET's Aeration Technologies ensure that proper mixing delivers guaranteed results that meet effluent limits. Reducing the nutrient load on the lake may not be possible and alternative actions are required such as minimising or removing the magnifying effects of thermal stratification on the eutrophication process. Our results show that global CO 2 budgetary assertions still lack information on tropical, marine-dominated estuarine systems, which are affected by thermal stratification and eutrophication and … At the end of thermal stratification the surface waters of the epilimnion gradually cool as a result of conduction, evaporation and convection. 2015a, b). Typically stratified lakes show three distinct layers, the Epilimnion comprising the top warm layer, the thermocline (or Metalimnion): the middle layer, which may change depth throughout the day, and the colder Hypolimnion extending to the floor of the lake. In this study, thermal stratification is correlated with wind-induced mixing and trophic state to see the effect of thermal stratification on eutrophication. The concentration of available phosphate (orthophosphate phosphorus) during the study period ranged from a maximum of 9.4 ± 1.2 mg/L under reducing condition (ORP − 299 mV) in February to a minimum of 7.1 ± 0.9 mg/l under oxidising condition (ORP 137 mV) in March. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.91754. The thermal classification scheme of Hutchinson and Löffler (1956) and Hutchinson (1957) as modified by Lewis (1983). The algal blooms have a number of adverse effects on water users, because algae can reduce dissolved oxygen, affect nutrient cycle produce toxins, and decrease aesthetic water quality (Brown et al. 2. The pond was weakly to strongly thermally stratified throughout the study. Adv Appl Sci Res 3(5):2992–2996, George DG (1981) Wind-induced water movements in the South Basin of Windermere. Thermal (temperature—°C) and chemical (DO—mg/l) stratification in DTU pond during the study. It is d ue to the change in density of water with change in temperature. Temperature, wind velocity, current speed and dissolved oxygen data are compared in this section, and observations are described in Table 1 and Fig. 2). By Scott A. At wind speeds above 500 cm/s, “the wind factor remained in the range of 1–3%” (George 1981). Department of Environmental Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Shahbad Daulatpur, Rohini, Delhi, 110042, India, Priyanka Singh, Jyoti Bagrania & A. K. Haritash, You can also search for this author in The temperature lapse was observed to be 0.8, 1.1, 4.4, and 3.0 during months January, February, March, and April of 2015 (Table 1), respectively. Groundwater Aquifers. Geophys Res Lett 35:1–5, Bormans M, Maier H, Burch M, Baker P (1997) Temperature stratification in the lower River Murray, Australia: implication for cyanobacterial bloom development. Thermocline was found at approximately same depth of 3 °cm during the study. Milan Jain, Amarjeet Singh, Vikas Chandan, Portable+, … Cold water is denser than warm water and the upper layer consists of water that is not as dense as the water in the lower layer. Thermal stratification of a reservoir is a physical process that produces a biologically eutrophic system at lower concentrations of dissolved nutrients. The reservoir eutrophication condition was investigated based on Carlson’s index, which indicated that the reservoir was in the eutrophic condition in most months of the year. Enrichment of nutrients can lead hyper-eutrophication. This autotrophic metabolism is apparently enhanced by eutrophication. In this study, both the factors were observed to play a significant role in keeping TSI-SD values less than the other parameters (Fig. Environ Process 2(1):S85–S100, Olila OG, Reddy KR (1997) Influence of redox potential on phosphate uptake by sediments in two sub-tropical eutrophic lakes. Microscopic view (100×) of Ceriodaphnia spp. Based on the simulated data, summer stratification in the Zayandeh Roud reservoir caused changes in water quality and anaerobic conditions of the hypolimnion. Crossref . The samples were characterised for pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), available phosphate (AP), total phosphate (TP), nitrogen (as nitrate and total Kjeldahl nitrogen TKN), calcium, magnesium, chlorophyll (Chl), Secchi depth (SD) as per standard methods in triplicates using analytical grade (AR) chemicals and ultrapure (type I) water. Lake stratification is the separation of lakes into three layers. Assessment of Ilam Reservoir Eutrophication Response in Controlling Water Inflow Nourmohammadi Dehbalaei, F.1, Javan, M ... water withdrawal scenarios in thermal stratification and water quality in the Sejnane reservoir. Permanent stratification has decisive impact on redistribution of dissolved substances, in deep lakes complete mixing rarely occurs, and it leads to anoxic condition at bottom of the lake (Boehrer and Schultze 2008; Mellios et al. volume 9, Article number: 139 (2019) The pond has total area of 9468 m2 and average depth of 1.8 m. It receives wastewater from neighbouring residential colony and partially from a university hostel. Wind-induced current was empirically calculated, for wind speeds between 100 and 500 cm/s “the wind factor (current speed/wind speed) decreased linearly with wind speed”. In this study, thermal stratification is correlated with wind-induced mixing and trophic state to see the effect of thermal stratification on eutrophication. Limnol Oceanogr 22(2):361–369, Chubarenko I, Chubarenko B, Esiukova E, Baudler H (2010) Mixing by Langmuir circulation in shallow lagoons. Appl Water Sci 7:1881–1886, Boehrer B, Schultze M (2008) Stratification of lakes. Further analysis of this data, including calculation of Buoyancy frequency and Richardson number (R), is also included. of Civil Engineering, Isfahan Univ. PubMed Google Scholar. It is observed that TSI-TP has maximum value followed by TSI-Chl and TSI-SD. Animasaun, Theoretical Exploration of Exponential Heat Source and Thermal Stratification Effects on The Motion of 3-Dimensional Flow of Casson Fluid Over a Low Heat Energy Surface at Initial Unsteady Stage, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 10.1515/jtam-2017-0010, 47, 2, (61-82), (2017). of Technology, Qom 37195-1519, Iran. Thermal stratification is an important natural phenomenon in aquatic systems, which interferes significantly with their physical and chemical structure, creating complex gradients or simply leading to increased heterogeneity of the water column. Email: Graduate Student, Dept. The surface epilimnion represented higher values of Trophic State Index for total phosphate (TSI-TP) and relatively lower values of total chlorophyll (TSI-Chl). The selected water quality parameters, which are effective in eutrophication, included nitrate Figure 3.2.3 Biological, chemical and physical processes of eutrophication-driven coastal deoxygenation (modified from Downing et al., 1999). Modeling Thermal Stratification Effects in Lakes and Reservoirs. of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran. 2015). Monomictic: Lakes that only circulate once during the year. In addition, two management scenarios, reduction of nutrients loads and reaeration of the hypolimnion, were evaluated to mitigate the eutrophication. Lake Stratification and Mixing Many of our Illinois lakes and reservoirs are deep enough to stratify, or form "layers" of water with different temperatures. Cite this article. of Technology, Qom 37195-1519, Iran. Email: ©2019 American Society of Civil Engineers, Multiobjective Reservoir Operation for Water Quality Optimization, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, The Water Quality Dissolved Particulate Eutrophication Model, Waterbody Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Modeling: An Introductory Workbook and CD-ROM on Three-Dimensional Waterbody Modeling, Prediction of Thermal Stratification in Proposed Bakhtyari Reservoir with CE-QUAL-W2, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009: Great Rivers, Three-Dimensional Ecological-Eutrophication Model for Singapore, Application of the Water Quality Dissolved Particulate Eutrophication Model, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001529, © 1996–2021, American Society of Civil Engineers. Proc R Soc Ser A 110:709–737, Shah JA, Pandit AK (2012) Physico-chemical characteristics of water in Wular lake—a Ramsar site in Kashmir Himalaya. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Cultural eutrophication is a process that speeds up the rate of natural eutrophication by increasing the inflow rate of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) into the water body.

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