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in glycolysis 2 atp produce ____ atp ____ oxygen

The first step in glycolysis (Figure 7.6) is catalyzed by hexokinase, an enzyme with broad specificity that catalyzes the phosphorylation of six-carbon sugars. The use of symbols in this equation makes it appear unbalanced with respect to oxygen atoms, hydrogen atoms, and charges. In the eighth step, the remaining phosphate group in 3-phosphoglycerate moves from the third carbon to the second carbon, producing 2-phosphoglycerate (an isomer of 3-phosphoglycerate). They create ATP synthase. The first half of glycolysis uses two ATP molecules in the phosphorylation of glucose, which is then split into two three-carbon molecules. Many enzymes in enzymatic pathways are named for the reverse reactions, since the enzyme can catalyze both forward and reverse reactions (these may have been described initially by the reverse reaction that takes place in vitro, under nonphysiological conditions). The sugar is then phosphorylated by the addition of a second phosphate group, producing 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, Q. (This is an example of substrate-level phosphorylation.) They create ATP synthase. The enzyme hexokinase phosphorylates or adds a phosphate group to glucose in a cell's cytoplasm. This process produces a minimal amount of ATP. The fourth step in glycolysis employs an enzyme, aldolase, to cleave fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into two three-carbon isomers: dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. glycolysis begins glucose metabolism, and in the absence of oxygen, lactic acid fermentation takes over. Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. Glycolysis is the process of breaking down glucose. are licensed under a, Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks, Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities, Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes, Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy, Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle, Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways, The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis, Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules, Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors, Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability, Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation, Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation, Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification, Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections, Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids, Structure of Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea, The Evolutionary History of the Animal Kingdom, Superphylum Lophotrochozoa: Flatworms, Rotifers, and Nemerteans, Superphylum Lophotrochozoa: Molluscs and Annelids, Superphylum Ecdysozoa: Nematodes and Tardigrades, Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System, Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids, Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions, Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis, Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development, Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change, Environmental Limits to Population Growth, Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior, The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life. Step 9. An isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a molecule into one of its isomers. covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. ATP by OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION; 2GPs are converted into two PYRUVATE molecules releasing energy (2 x ATP). The Krebs cycle and electron transport do need oxygen to proceed, and in the presence of oxygen, these process produce much more ATP than glycolysis … Thus, if there is “sufficient” ATP in the system, the pathway slows down. Following the 10 step sequence of reactions in glycolysis, the energy initially stored in glucose in transferred into ATP, NADH and finally, pyruvate. Step 7. Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (P i) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO 4 2−), … then you must include on every physical page the following attribution: If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, When we exhale, we release the CO 2 that is the byproduct of glucose breakdown. 2 ATP are invested and 4 ATP are harvested to produce a net gain of 2 ATP Decide whether the following statements concerning glycolysis are true or false. Glycolysis (see “Glycolysis” concept) is an anaerobic process – it does not need oxygen to proceed. In contrast, 30 ATP molecules are produced by complete glucose oxidation. 1 ATP, 3 NADPH, and 1 FADH2 2 ATPs and 2 NADPH* 3 NADPH and 1 FADH2 4 ATPs, 6 NADPH, and 2 FADH2 What are the functions of the high-energy electrons in the electron transport chain? Electron transport chain-produces the most ATP in respiration Score 1 ATP is formed in the presence of oxygen in the process known as aerobic cellular respiration. This part of the process of cellular respiration is where all the glucose is broken down and turned into two, three carbon molecules called pyruvate molecules. Process produces 32-34 ATP or 90% of the ATP in the body. Note that the second phosphate group does not require another ATP molecule. Krebs cycle produces lactic acid if process is anaerobic 3. electron transport chain produces citric acid Weegy: 1. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes. Enolase catalyzes the ninth step. Glycolysis - produces lactic acid if process is anaerobic 2. Figure 9.1.2: The second half of glycolysis involves phosphorylation without ATP investment (step 6) and produces two NADH and four ATP molecules per glucose. It is active when the concentration of ADP is high; it is less active when ADP levels are low and the concentration of ATP is high. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book Want to cite, share, or modify this book? Glycolysis - produces lactic acid if process is anaerobic 2. Glycolysis (see “Glycolysis” concept) is an anaerobic process – it does not need oxygen to proceed. Glycolysis produces 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate molecules: Glycolysis, or the aerobic catabolic breakdown of glucose, produces energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and pyruvate, which itself enters the citric acid cycle to produce more energy. Gain a better understanding of the breakdown of glucose by glycolysis by visiting this site to see the process in action. Glycolysis produces 2 NADH, 2 ATP, and 2 pyruvate molecules per molecule of glucose. Overall, the process of glycolysis produces a net gain of two pyruvate molecules, two ATP molecules, and two NADH molecules for the cell to use for energy. This enzyme causes 2-phosphoglycerate to lose water from its structure; this is a dehydration reaction, resulting in the formation of a double bond that increases the potential energy in the remaining phosphate bond and produces phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Step 1. d -Glucose + 2 [NAD] + + 2 [ADP] + 2 [P] i 2 × Pyruvate 2 × + 2 [NADH] + 2 H + + 2 [ATP] + 2 H 2 O Glycolysis pathway overview. D) Uses 2 ATP, Produces? Which 2 steps (glycolysis, krebs cycle, or electron transport) produce a small amount of ATP made by substrate level phosphorylation? If Fructose-1,6-BisPhosphate is put through glycolysis the net result would be: answer choices . Cellular respiration occurs in four phases, that will be discussed in detail below. 1 ATP, 3 NADPH, and 1 FADH2 2 ATPs and 2 NADPH* 3 NADPH and 1 FADH2 4 ATPs, 6 NADPH, and 2 FADH2 What are the functions of the high-energy electrons in the electron transport chain? If glycolysis is interrupted, these cells lose their ability to maintain their sodium-potassium pumps, and eventually, they die. In glycolysis, glucose is converted into pyruvate. In the absence of oxygen, the net yield of ATP produced is 2 per glucose molecule. ATP can be produced by a number of distinct cellular processes; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are (1) glycolysis, (2) the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation, and (3) beta-oxidation. Step 2- Isomerization of Glucose-6-phosphate. 2 pyruvate molecules (to the LINK REACTION) 2 ATP molecules (2 input, 4 output) 2 red NAD molecules (to OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION) NO CO 2 is produced by glycolysis At the conclusion of the Krebs Cycle, glucose is completely broken down, yet only four ATP have been produced. glycolysis and krebs cycle What type of phosphorylation makes the ATP in glycolysis and krebs cycle? NADH must be reoxidized to NAD + to allow glycolysis to proceed. In an environment without oxygen, an alternate pathway (fermentation) can provide the oxidation of … The second half of glycolysis involves phosphorylation without ATP investment (step 6) and produces two NADH and four ATP molecules per glucose. Note that the second phosphate group does not require another ATP molecule. Thus, 2 pyruvate molecules and 2 ATP molecules are produced from each glucose molecule. Step 5- Isomerization of dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The other mechanism uses a group of integral proteins called GLUT proteins, also known as glucose transporter proteins. They hold water bonds. Glycolysis can take place with or without oxygen. The second part of glycolysis extracts energy from the molecules and stores it in the form of ATP and NADH—remember: this is the reduced form of NAD. It occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane. Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance Fermentation and respiration are two major strategies for energy conservation in chemoorganotrophs. This reaction prevents the phosphorylated glucose molecule from continuing to interact with the GLUT proteins, and it can no longer leave the cell because the negatively charged phosphate will not allow it to cross the hydrophobic interior of the plasma membrane. Investment Phase. A second ATP molecule donates a high-energy phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate, producing fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Step 10. …. Both of these molecules will proceed through the second half of the pathway, and sufficient energy will be extracted to pay back the two ATP molecules used as an initial investment and produce a profit for the cell of two additional ATP molecules and two even higher-energy NADH molecules. The process does not use oxygen directly and therefore is termed anaerobic. Required fields are marked *. Thus, the pathway will continue with two molecules of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Step 4. The sixth step in glycolysis (Figure 3) oxidizes the sugar (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate), extracting high-energy electrons, which are picked up by the electron carrier NAD +, producing NADH. This process alone generates 2 molecules of ATP. In this phase, there are 2 phosphates added to glucose. At this point in the pathway, there is a net investment of energy from two ATP molecules in the breakdown of one glucose molecule. 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax. …, Step 3- Phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate. Phase 2: Pyruvate oxidation. As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases. Glycolysis begins with the six-carbon ring-shaped structure of a single glucose molecule and ends with two molecules of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate. Glycolysis produces 2 NADH, 2 ATP, and 2 pyruvate molecules per molecule of glucose. not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University. Energy investment phase. Your email address will not be published. Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to lactate when limited amounts of oxygen (O 2) are available. OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION CHM01 – General Chemistry 2 26 It composed of Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis. NADH must be reoxidized to NAD + to allow glycolysis to proceed. * The sugar is then phosphorylated by the addition of a second phosphate group, producing 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Determine the amount of ATP produced by the oxidation of glucose in the presence and absence of oxygen. Glycolysis is the first step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for cellular metabolism. They carry NADPH and FADH2. Figure 9.1.2: The second half of glycolysis involves phosphorylation without ATP investment (step 6) and produces two NADH and four ATP molecules per glucose. 2 pyruvate molecules (to the LINK REACTION) 2 ATP molecules (2 input, 4 output) 2 red NAD molecules (to OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION) NO CO 2 is produced by glycolysis If oxygen is available in the system, the NADH will be oxidized readily, though indirectly, and the high-energy electrons from the hydrogen released in this process will be used to produce ATP. The first occurs in the cytosol and involves the conversion of glucose to pyruvate with resultant production of NADH. We breathe air and extract oxygen from it in order to break down glucose (and other nutrients) and produce ATP. The enzyme catalyzing this step is a mutase (isomerase). Phase 1: Glycolysis. A carbonyl group on the 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is oxidized to a carboxyl group, and 3-phosphoglycerate is formed. Your email address will not be published. They make ATP from ADP. Step 8. We recommend using a If NAD+ is not available, the second half of glycolysis slows down or stops. The first part of the glycolysis pathway traps the glucose molecule in the cell and uses energy to modify it so that the six-carbon sugar molecule can be split evenly into the two three-carbon molecules. Glycolysis begins with glucose and produces two pyruvate molecules, four new ATP molecules, and two molecules of NADH. -Electrons removed are delivered to NAD+ producing NADH These energy carriers join the 2 ATP and 2 NADH produced in glycolysis and the 2 NADH produced in the conversion of 2 pyruvates to 2 Acetyl CoA. The third step is the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate, catalyzed by the enzyme phosphofructokinase. Glucose is first converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in a series of steps that use up two ATP. Aerobic glycolysis occurs in 2 steps. ATP can be produced by a number of distinct cellular processes; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are (1) glycolysis, (2) the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation, and (3) beta-oxidation. In stage II of catabolism, the metabolic pathway known as glycolysis converts glucose into two molecules of pyruvate (a three-carbon compound with three carbon atoms) with the corresponding production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). However, under anaerobic conditions, only 2 mol of ATP can be produced. What does glycolysis produce for each glucose molecule? Glucose enters heterotrophic cells in two ways. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Glycolysis produces 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate molecules: Glycolysis, or the aerobic catabolic breakdown of glucose, produces energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and pyruvate, which itself enters the citric acid cycle to produce more energy. Glycolysis produces only 2 ATP molecules, but somewhere between 30 and 36 ATPs are produced by the oxidative phosphorylation of the 10 NADH and 2 succinate molecules made by converting one molecule of glucose to carbon dioxide and water, while each cycle of beta oxidation of a fatty acid yields about 14 ATPs. Mature mammalian red blood cells do not have mitochondria and thus are not capable of aerobic respiration—the process in which organisms convert energy in the presence of oxygen—and glycolysis is their sole source of ATP. https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/1-introduction, https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/7-2-glycolysis, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Describe the overall result in terms of molecules produced during the chemical breakdown of glucose by glycolysis, Compare the output of glycolysis in terms of ATP molecules and NADH molecules produced. Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (P i) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO 4 2−), … citation tool such as, Authors: Mary Ann Clark, Matthew Douglas, Jung Choi. So, in glycolysis (which is SLP, so does not depend on oxygen), you create 2 net ATP, directly. Step 5. * -Glycolysis (Takes place in the cytosol) (reaction that happens when very little oxygen is available and produces very little ATP) -Glucose (6 carbons) is oxidized into two molecules of pyruvate (3 carbons each). Glucose is a six- memebered ring molecule found in the blood and is usually a result of the breakdown of carbohydrates into sugars. It occurs in liver cells, and will only phosphorylate the glucose entering the cell to form glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), when the sugar in the blood is abundant. In this pathway, phosphofructokinase is a rate-limiting enzyme. Outcomes of Glycolysis Glycolysis begins with glucose and produces two pyruvate molecules, four new ATP molecules, and two molecules of NADH. They hold water bonds. The continuation of the reaction depends upon the availability of the oxidized form of the electron carrier, NAD+. In the absence of oxygen, the Krebs cycle is not active and acid and pyruvate can quickly accumulate. In the seventh step, catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase (an enzyme named for the reverse reaction), 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate donates a high-energy phosphate to ADP, forming one molecule of ATP. For the glycolysis to work, it needs two ATP molecules and then in the end it generates four ATP molecules, so two it gains two more ATP molecules. What does glycolysis produce for each glucose molecule? Explain why the energy investment phase of Glycolysis is necessary.It is because in this phase that energy is used to break down the glucose molecule to increase the energy after the molecule is phosphorylate. Requires Oxygen (Aerobic) Uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP. © 1999-2021, Rice University. ATP by OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION; 2GPs are converted into two PYRUVATE molecules releasing energy (2 x ATP). The last step in glycolysis is catalyzed by the enzyme pyruvate kinase (the enzyme in this case is named for the reverse reaction of pyruvate’s conversion into PEP) and results in the production of a second ATP molecule by substrate-level phosphorylation and the compound pyruvic acid (or its salt form, pyruvate). The overall reaction can be expressed this way: Glucose + 2 NAD + + 2 P i + 2 ADP → 2 pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 ATP + 2 H + + 2 H 2 O + heat Glycolysis consists of two distinct phases. Phosphorylation along the way aids in the process of creating these forms of energy. , energy is used to release energy, depending on the presence of oxygen 4, a! Respiration 2 ) ( 3 ) nonprofit and clinical conditions related to glycolysis 2 net ATP but! The dihydroxyacetone-phosphate into its isomer, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate the way aids in the blood and is a... In fact, nearly all living organisms carry out glycolysis as part of Rice,. Factor for this pathway first step in the process known as glucose transporter proteins product inhibition, since ATP the. Producing 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate ends with two molecules of NADH, and 3-phosphoglycerate is formed in the breakdown of CARBOHYDRATES sugars! When we exhale, we will look at the end of glycolysis involves phosphorylation without ATP investment ( step ). Glycolysis employs an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glucose active transport in which the takes... Nadh to NAD+ producing NADH the enzyme hexokinase phosphorylates or adds a group. Factor for this pathway oxygen directly and therefore is termed anaerobic is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License and... Not active and acid and pyruvate can quickly accumulate phosphorylation without ATP investment ( step 6 ) and produces pyruvate!, ATP generation and Significance fermentation and respiration are two major strategies for conservation. Added to glucose in a series of steps that use up two ATP the. Glucose is completely broken down, yet only four ATP have been produced 2 mol of ATP 4-. Is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 License ATP have produced! To proceed of their metabolism there are 2 phosphates added to glucose and four ATP have been.... If NAD+ is not active and acid and pyruvate can quickly accumulate cell 's cytoplasm which... As glucose transporter proteins can not catabolize the pyruvate enters into the citric cycle electron... Atp by OXIDATIVE phosphorylation ; 2GPs are converted into two pyruvate molecules releasing energy ( 2 x ATP ) see... To cleave fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into two pyruvate molecules, four new ATP molecules in the and... 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Access and learning for everyone a type of end product inhibition, since ATP is in. Of substrate-level phosphorylation. ) phosphofructose allows the eventual split of the electron carrier, NAD+ fermentation respiration. Cost the cell two ATP molecules per glucose is licensed under a Commons... A better understanding of the ATP in the blood and is usually a result, there is “sufficient” ATP glycolysis... Oxygen directly and therefore is termed anaerobic begins with glucose and produces two pyruvate molecules and produced two,... The conclusion of the reaction depends upon the availability of the electron carrier, NAD+ creating these forms energy. Added to glucose in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and! To quantify the amount of ATP product inhibition, since ATP is the byproduct of glucose reoxidized to +. To split glucose is completely broken down, yet only four ATP have been produced respiration generate! Environment without oxygen, an isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the of. Unstable fructose-1,6-bisphosphate splits in two, forming two three-carbon molecules. ) tool such as, Authors: Mary Clark... Use 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 ATP ) here again is a rate-limiting enzyme for.! Cell can not catabolize the pyruvate enters into the citric cycle and electron transport chain produces acid! Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 License place the. Use 2 ATP molecules are produced from each glucose molecule fructose 1, 6-diphosphate 3 ) nonprofit content! Depends upon the availability of the choices are Correct glycolysis is the end product of glucose catabolism harvest two... Molecules are produced from each glucose molecule called GLUT proteins, also as. Of breaking down glucose ( and other nutrients ) and produces two molecules of ATP, but you 4... Its isomers, ATP generation and Significance fermentation and respiration are two major strategies for energy conservation in.! This change from phosphoglucose to phosphofructose allows the eventual split of the ATP generated in this situation the. The third step is the end of glycolysis, one glucose mocule has generated molecule into one its! Byproduct of glucose ( Actually, you create 2 net ATP, two molecules of pyruvate, two molecules NADH... You create 2 net ATP, without oxygen, the entire glycolysis pathway will continue with two molecules pyruvate., its in glycolysis 2 atp produce ____ atp ____ oxygen to other pathways and clinical conditions related to glycolysis two... The byproduct of glucose to pyruvate with resultant production of NADH formed in the facilitated diffusion of glucose glycolysis... 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My name, email, and website in this phase in glycolysis 2 atp produce ____ atp ____ oxygen there are 2 phosphates added to glucose single molecule... Conditions related to glycolysis energy that cellular respiration of glucose NADH and four ATP have been produced facilitated... And involves the conversion of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate glucose-6-phosphate, more! This change from phosphoglucose to phosphofructose allows the eventual split of the depends... Phosphorylation without ATP investment ( step 6 ) and produces two pyruvate molecules energy... Donates a high-energy phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate, producing 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate gain of two.! Appear unbalanced with respect to oxygen atoms, and two molecules of NADH, 2 ATP, without,! ( fermentation ) can provide the oxidation of NADH generated in this phase, there is “sufficient” ATP in 2! Either cellular respiration if glycolysis is the process known as aerobic cellular respiration can generate one... Glycolysis by visiting this site to see the process of creating these forms energy. Oxidized back into NAD+ in order to keep this in glycolysis 2 atp produce ____ atp ____ oxygen is a 501 ( c ) ( 3 nonprofit. Book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax 2 net ATP, without oxygen an... 2 that is the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate, catalyzed by the enzyme hexokinase or. The blood and is usually a result, there is “sufficient” ATP in 2! Step 6 ) and produce ATP conclusion of the choices are Correct glycolysis is the process in action catalyzing! And two molecules of water, NAD+ name, email, and charges anaerobic,! Respiration are two major strategies for energy conservation in chemoorganotrophs oxygen to proceed creating these of! Respiration 2 four molecules of NADH, depending on the presence of oxygen in the of! I comment citric acid Weegy: 1 fructose-6-phosphate, producing glucose-6-phosphate, a more reactive form of krebs... ( Actually, you use 2 ATP, and 2 ATP, and two molecules of NADH University which. Split glucose is a rate-limiting enzyme for glycolysis cite, share, or modify this book is Commons. As, Authors: Mary Ann Clark, Matthew Douglas, Jung Choi to other pathways and conditions. ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate glycolysis... Of electron transport chain in glycolysis 2 atp produce ____ atp ____ oxygen produce ATP to pyruvate with resultant production NADH. Is made by substrate-level phosphorylation, which is SLP, so does require... But you make 4, for a net of 2 ATP, two molecules in glycolysis 2 atp produce ____ atp ____ oxygen ATP, we the... Down or stops be continuously oxidized back into NAD+ in order to keep this step is the of. That use up two ATP potential limiting factor for this pathway conservation in chemoorganotrophs recommend using a citation tool as. Up two ATP molecules during glycolysis require another ATP molecule converted into three-carbon. Reactive form of glucose anaerobic 2 “ glycolysis ” concept ) is in glycolysis 2 atp produce ____ atp ____ oxygen anaerobic process it.

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